Mobility expressions explained

New mobility services has been under development since some years with new words and expressions coming up. Here we will try to explain some of them.


ACES: Autonomous, Connected, Electric, Shared


AV: Autonomous vehicle. A vehicle that can drive without a human driver onboard or remote.
SAE Level 4 AV can drive in pre defined areas, such as a city and its sorrundings. It may in some situations need assistanse from a human driver and that can be performed remotely from a control tower. Several companies received permission to use Level 4 AVs for passenger transportation during 2020.

SAE Level 5 AV can drive without assistance anywhere.


Car sharing: Rent a car from a car pool or car rental.


MaaS: Mobility as a Service. All mobility except with the private vehicle.


Ride-hailing: Calling for a ride with an ordinary taxi, Uber or similar service.


Ride-sharing:  Transportation services where several passengers can share the same vehicle but not necessarily travel together or go on and off at the same places, typical current use is city buses and trams. Ride-sharing with Robotaxis is a very efficient transportation system with large potential to reduce traffic and pollution if it is offered as a door-to-door service in electric minibuses. Autonomous technology will reduce the cost to a level that is very competitive to large buses and private cars.

Uber, Lyft, Didi, 99 etc. are often called ride-sharing but does not meet the above description, they are ride-hailing taxi businesses.


Robotaxi:  Taxi services with autonomous vehicles.


Shuttle: A vehicle, autonomous or with driver, that is used for transportations between two locations, such as between a hotel and an airport. Often misused as a name for Robotaxis.


TaaS: Transport as a Service. Same as MaaS, All mobility except with the private vehicle.